The production sector in Mexico has shown greater growth in recent years than that of the country’s economy as a whole. The growth in production of agricultural export products is responsible to a large extent for this impetus, having enabled the country to run a surplus in agricultural and agro-food trade since 2015. Despite the vigor of the agricultural sector, however, its development has proven unable to benefit the greater part of the rural population; nor has it reduced the existing gap in the progress of the region or of the vulnerable and marginalized population groups.
Generally speaking, the distinguishing features of the agricultural sector and rural area in Mexico are for the most part the relatively large number of people marginalized and living in poverty; the low level of productivity as compared with the country as a whole and in relation to international standards; the lack of infrastructure and deficiencies in the marketing stage; the geographic concentration of production, with the resulting growing exposure to adverse climate and health factors that are particularly detrimental to the output of small producers given the extreme vulnerability of their production systems; and the low level of financial inclusion. At the same time, in a context of growing globalization, Mexico confronts trends and challenges similar to those that are present in the rest of the world.